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    09:58
    International Law Visualized

    International Law Visualized

    International Law
    Definition: a body of rules established by custom or treaty and recognized by nations as binding in their relations with one another.

    Three types:

    Public International Law:

    Interactions between provinces and international entities[1]

    Including:
    Treaty law
    Law of sea
    Criminal law
    International humanitarian law

    Private International Law:

    Concerning:
    International Protection of Children
    International Protection of Adults
    Relations between (former) spouses
    Wills, Trusts and Estates
    Contracts
    Torts
    Securities
    Recognition of Companies
    Jurisdiction/Access to justice issues

    Supranational Law:

    When nations explicitly submit their right to make judicial decisions by treaty to a set a common tribunal.
    Examples: the Articles of Confederation, between the 13 sovereign states of the early United States
    The International Court of Justice

    Sources of Law

    Customary Law:
    ex.: A state that carries out or permits slavery, torture, genocide, war of aggression, and crimes against humanity
    –>

    Silence as Consent:
    ex.: Customary laws are pervasive enough to be binding even if not consented to by states.
    –>

    Some are Codified:
    By treaties or domestic law.
    ex.: Laws of war (jus in bello) were codified in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, and the Geneva Conventions.

    There’s not a single overarching state actor, so who enforces the law?

    6 bodies of the UN:

    General Assembly
    Economic and Social Council
    International Court of Justice
    Security Council
    Trusteeship Council
    Secretariat

    The International Court of Justice, since 1945

    Location: The Hague, Netherlands
    Jurisdiction: Worldwide, 193 state parties
    Number of Justices: 15
    Judge term length: 9 years

    Two states that agree to submit to the ruling of the court may be parties in contentious cases.[2]
    Individuals, corporations, parts of a federal state, NGOs, UN organs, and self-determination groups cannot be parties.

    Previous Contentious Cases:

    1980: US complaining that Iran was detaining American diplomats.
    1984: Maritime boundary dispute regarding boundary between the U.S. and Canada in the Gulf of Maine.[4]
    1985: Boundary drawing dispute regarding the continental shelf between Tunisia and Libya. [3]
    1999: Yugoslavia questioned the legality of use of force by the US and NATO in the Kosovo War.[5]

    The International Court of Justice is not bound by previous precedents, though they may consider them. Cases are only binding to the incidents being considered in them.

    The court issues both binding judgements
    and advisory opinions.
    Judgements are enforced by the Security Council

    The International Criminal Court, since 2002
    Location: The Hague, Netherlands/ anywhere
    Jurisdiction: 122 states

    —Where:
    1.) the accused is a national or a state party.
    2.) the crime was committed on a territory
    3.) or, a situation is referred by the UN Security Council
    Number of Justices: 18 (in three chambers: pre-trial, trial, and appeals)

    The US, China, and India are not members of the court[6]
    Members of the UN are automatically members of the ICC–> but must individually join the ICJ

    Crimes that can be judged in the International Criminal Court include:

    Genocide
    Crimes against humanity
    War crimes
    And the crime of aggression

    Historical Investigations:

    [8]

    35 individuals indicted–
    8 in custody
    2 appearing voluntarily
    7 acquitted or charges dismissed
    10 fugitives
    3 dead
    2 arrested by other authorities
    3 other

    In the nations of:
    Democratic Republic of Congo
    Uganda
    Central African Republic
    Darfur, Sudan
    Kenya
    Libya
    Ivory Coast
    Mali

    Currently all ICC cases have prosecuted parties in Africa[7]

    So who is affected by international law?

    Refugees are some of our most at risk

    International law holds that states are the primary actor in the legal system.

    Holding them responsible for what goes on:
    1.) under their control
    2.) and in their territory

    Such as…
    Refugees–[10]
    Definition: any person owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of:

    Race
    Religion
    Nationality
    Membership of a social group
    Political opinion
    Who is outside of his country and unable or unwilling to avail himself to the protection of his country.

    In 2013 there were 16.7 million refugees.
    Conflict and persecution force 32,200 people per day to seek protection elsewhere.

    Afghanistan is the biggest source of refugees.
    And has been for 32 YEARS.
    With 1/4 of the world’s refugees being afghan.

    Developing countries host over 86% of the world’s refugees.

    Leaving them at risk for a variety of mistreatments and horrible living conditions.

    Asylum is a right preserved in international law:
    [#largest asylum claim countries in 2013]
    Germany: 109,600
    USA: 84,400
    South Africa: 70,000
    France: 60,200
    Sweden: 54,300
    Protecting potential long-term refugees.

    International law is increasingly relevant in an interconnected world.

     

    http://www.affordable-online-colleges.net/international-law/

    Категория: Судебные системы разных стран | Просмотров: 705 | Добавил: cozma | Теги: Public International Law, Law, Private International Law, Sources of Law, International | Рейтинг: 5.0/1

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    11.08.2020

     


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